Safeguards Agreement Iaea


The term “state-level concept” was first used in 2005 in an IAEA document, although the IAEA has followed the practice since the early 1990s. The State-level approach is used for all States, with a comprehensive guarantee agreement, an additional protocol in force and a broader conclusion. In a 2013 report, the IAEA Director General expressed his intention to continue to develop state-level approaches to implementing protection measures for other states. The five Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty States (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) are not required to have IAEA safeguards agreements under the NPT. However, all five have signed voluntary safeguards agreements allowing the IAEA to apply safeguard measures to materials located in selected eligible facilities. These are nuclear materials and civilian sites. The five nuclear-weapon States have also concluded additional protocols to the voluntary security agreements. Under article III of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), all non-nuclear-weapon States are required to enter into a safeguards agreement with the IAEA known as a comprehensive security agreement (CSA or INFCIRC/153). In view of the almost universal adherence to the NPT, protective measures are now widespread. The five nuclear-weapon States of the Non-Proliferation Treaty have concluded security agreements covering some or all of their peaceful nuclear activities. Under these voluntary offer agreements, the State concerned is notified to the IAEA and offers safeguard measures. The IAEA applies safeguards under voluntary supply agreements for nuclear material at selected facilities. If the IAEA draws a broader conclusion for a state, it can implement “integrated safeguard measures” tailored to each state.

Consequently, the resulting application of the safeguard measures will be less onerous and less costly for that State. Each of these agreements may be supplemented by an additional protocol containing provisions on information and access to all parts of a State`s nuclear fuel cycle, from mines to nuclear waste. Safeguards agreements ensure that all nuclear activities carried out by a State are for peaceful purposes and that a State does not participate in illegal nuclear activities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the independent body responsible for implementing safeguard measures. Provisional measures are a set of technical measures applied by the IAEA to nuclear material and activities by which the Organization intends to independently verify that nuclear facilities are not misused and that nuclear material is not diverted from peaceful uses. . . .

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